In the beginning part of the each session, chairs take the roll in order to see the delegates in the house or absent. When a delegate hears his or her countries’ name, he or she should say ‘present’ or ‘present and voting’.
All delegates are responsible to preapare and make their opening speeches in MUN Conferences. In your opening speeches, you may refer to your position paper. In MUNIAC, delegates will have one and half minutes to deliever their opening speeches. Opening speeches are really important since it is the best moment a delegate can deliver his country’s basic purposes, current policies and wishes in this conference freely.
POINTS & MOTIONS
Motions propose actions. There are a lot of Motion Types but some of them are;
Motion to suspend the meeting:
Recess the Meeting (Suspends the rules to allow informal discussions)
Motion to close the debate:
Move to immediate vote. A motion to close debate may be made at any time but requires the support of twothirds of the committee to pass
Motion to move to moderated caucus:
During a caucus, which is a temporary recess, the rules of procedure are suspended. To go to a moderated caucus, a delegate makes a motion to suspend debate and the committee votes. Caucusing helps to facilitate discussion, especially when there is a long speakers list. A moderated caucus is a mixture of both formal and informal debate. Anyone may speak if they raise their placard and are called on by the Chair.
Motion to move to unmoderated caucus:
In an unmoderated caucus, delegates meet informally with one another and the committee staff to discuss and negotiate draft resolutions, amendments and other issues.
Motion to move into the voting procedure:
Sometimes delegates feel that there is nothing to say about a resolution anymore , however debating time has not elapsed yet. Now the delegate may use this motion. If there are no objectıons the house will directly move into voting procedures.
Motion to extend debate time:
It extends the debate time after voting procedure.
Motion to set speaker’s time:
A delegate may set the speaker’s time by giving this motion.
Second a motion:
In voting procedure after a motion has been given; to second a motion means to accept and support this motion.
Object a motion:
In voting procedure after a motion has been given; to object a motion means to reject this motion.
Motion to propose a draft resolution:
Before proposing a draft resolution a delegate should give this motion.
Motion to propose an amendment:
Before proposing an amendment about a resolution, a delegate should give this motion.
Motion to appeal the decision of the President:
If a delegate wants to appeal the decision, he or she may give this motion.
During debate, several points and motions can be given. But they shouldn’t interrupt a speaaker while he/she is speaking. If a delegate wishes to rise a point, he or she is supposed to raise his placard and state his/her point. The delegate will then be recognised by the Chair, and the delegate will rise and state his/her point. If others agree with this motion they will shout “second!” A delegate disagree with this motion may shout “objection!’’. There are lots of points such as;
Point of Order:
If something is wrong in the committee, a delegate can use this point.
Point of information to the Chair:
If a delegate has a question during the debate, it can be asked to chair anytime.
Point of information:
Actually, this point is a question directed to speaker. If you have any further questions to the speaker, you can use this point.
Point of personal privilege:
This point may also be used while the speaker is speaking because you’d make use this point if there is an audibility problem or etc.
Yield is what you do with the remaining speaking time that you have. And yielding is essentially means giving the rest of your time to someone or back to the chair. ( The delegate of South Korea yields its time back to the chair.) The floor means an opportunity to speak; it means being allowed to speak.
The Speaker’s List is held by the chair and determines which delegates will speak. It also serves as an account of how many times each delegate has spoken.
A break from a formal debate in which countries can informally discuss a topic. There are two types of caucus; Moderated caucus and Unmoderated caucus.
Moderated Caucus: A type of caucus in which delegates remain stead and the Chair calls on them one at a time to speak for a short period of time, enabling a freer exchange of opinions than would be possible in formal case.
Unmoderated Caucus: A type of caucus in which delegates leave their seats to mingle and speak freely. Enables the free sharing of ideas to an extent not possible in formal debate or even a moderated caucus. Frequently used to sort countries into blocs and to write working papers and draft resolutions.
Working papers are the first step towards a resolution. They are the result of caucusing and coordinated writing efforts by the delegates. A working paper provides the delegates with exactly what the name suggests—something to work on. It is the first attempt to place the abstract ideas from debate and position papers into written form. Working papers are concrete in that they are relatively formal, yet they are also flexible because they are not bound by the format of resolutions. They are usually one page proposals and help to focus discussion on certain aspects of the entire topic at hand (see the sample working paper). Likewise, as the papers themselves are rough drafts, they can be combined or altered to piece together a coherent resolution. This is key. In the working paper stage, it is very important for the committee to gain as much consensus as possible. During this interim step toward a resolution, some of the most valuable debate takes place. If problems are dealt with during this phase, the resolution process will usually be much smoother. The director has power over the working paper process; the paper must be approved by the Director (but requires no delegate signatures) before it can be copied and handed out. Please note that there is no set format for working papers; the sample working paper attached as an appendix at the end of this guide is just one example of a possible working paper.
Draft resolutions are all resolutions that have not yet been voted on. Delegates write draft resolutions alone or with other countries. There are three main parts to a draft resolution: the heading, the preamble and the operative section. The heading shows the committee and topic along with the resolution number. It also lists the draft resolution’s sponsors and signatories (see below). Each draft resolution is one long sentence with sections separated by commas and semicolons. The subject of the sentence is the body making the statement (e.g., the General Assembly, Economic and Social Council, or Security Council). The preamble and operative sections then describe the current situation and actions that the committee will take.
The final results of discussion, writing and negotiation are resolutions—written suggestions for addressing a specific problem or issue. Resolutions, which are drafted by delegates and voted on by the committee, normally require a simple majority to pass (except in the Security Council). Only Security Council resolutions can compel nations to take action. All other UN bodies use resolutions to make recommendations or suggestions for future action. Your solution to the problems that the committee confronts take the form of a resolution. Resolutions represent the committee’s final attempt to draw together the interests of many competing nations into a comprehensive solution that serves the interests of the collective world community. From the procedural perspective, the resolution is the formal document upon which the committee will take action via the amendment and voting processes.
Be sure to follow the format for resolutions provided by the conference organizers. Each conference may have a slightly different format.
Create a detailed resolution. For example, if your resolution calls for a new program, think about how it will be funded and what body will manage it.
Try to cite facts whenever possible.
Be realistic. Do not create objectives for your resolution that cannot be met. Make sure your body can take the action suggested. For example, the General Assembly can’t sanction another country – only the Security Council can do so.
Try to find multiple sponsors. Your committee will be more likely to approve the resolutions if many delegates contribute ideas.
Preambulatory clauses are historic justifications for action. Use them to cite past resolutions, precedents and statements about the purpose of action.
Operative clauses are policies that the resolution is designed to create. Use them to explain what the committee will do to address the issue.
Once a motion to close debate has been approved, the committee moves into voting procedure. Amendments are voted on first, then resolutions. Once all of the resolutions are voted on, the committee moves to the next topic on the agenda. During voting, note-passing is suspended and going outside of the committee is not allowed. The administrative staff counts the votes and informs the chairs. Delegates cannot have conversations during the voting procedure. Only member states can vote in MUN. NGOs can make speeches and contribute to amendments, but they cannot vote on resolutions (expect at the Adivisory Panel). When delegates are voting, they have 3 options: in favor, against or abstaining.
Now you are ready to MUNIAC!